Other diseases

Acne vulgaris

Acne vulgaris (cystic acne or simply acne) is a common human skin disease, characterized by areas of skin with seborrhea (scaly red skin), comedones (blackheads and whiteheads), papules (pinheads), pustules (pimples), nodules (large papules) and possibly scarring. Acne affects mostly skin with the densest population of sebaceous follicles; these areas include the face, the upper part of the chest, and the back. Severe acne is inflammatory, but acne can also manifest in noninflammatory forms. The lesions are caused by changes in pilosebaceous units, skin structures consisting of a hair follicle and its associated sebaceous gland, changes that require androgen stimulation.

Wart (Verruca vulgaris)

Wart is a small, rough growth resembling a cauliflower or a solid blister. It typically occurs on human’s hands or feet, but often in other locations. Warts are caused by a viral infection, specifically by one of the many types of human papillomavirus (HPV). There are as many as 10 varieties of warts, the most common considered to be mostly harmless. It is possible to get warts from others; they are contagious and usually enter the body in an area of broken skin. They typically disappear after a few months but can last for years and can recur. Types of wart have been identified, varying in shape and site affected, as well as the type of human papillomavirus involved.

Dermatofytosis (Tinea)

Tinea is a contagious fungal skin infection. The most commonly affected areas include the feet, groin, scalp and beneath the breasts. Tinea can be spread by skin-to-skin contact or indirectly through towels, clothes or floors. Tinea is also known as ringworm, which is a misleading name as no worm is involved. All fungi need warm, moist environments and tinea is no exception. This is why the hottest, most sweat-prone areas of the body are the most likely areas for a tinea infection to occur. Communal showers and locker rooms are typical places where infection may be spread. Treatment includes antifungal medication, antiperspirants and good hygiene.

Granuloma anulare

Granuloma annulare is a chronic skin disease consisting of a rash with reddish bumps arranged in a circle or ring. Granuloma annulare is caused by inflammation in the dermis and is different from warts. It most often affects children, young and older adults and it is slightly more common in females (60/40 ratio).

Ichthyosis (Ichthyosis vulgaris)

Ichthyosis vulgaris (also known as Autosomal dominant ichthyosis) and Ichthyosis simplex is a skin disorder causing dry, scaly skin. It is the most common form of ichthyosis affecting around 1 in 250 people. For this reason it is known as common ichthyosis. It is usually an autosomal dominant inherited disease (often associated with filaggrin), although a rare non-heritable version called acquired ichthyosis exists.

Candidiasis (moniliasis, soor)

Candidiasis or Thrush is a fungal infection (mycosis) of any of the Candida species (all yeasts), of which Candida albicans is the most common. Also commonly referred to as a yeast infection, candidiasis is also technically known as candidosis, moniliasis, and oidiomycosis.

Nail diseases

Nail diseases are distinct from diseases of the skin. Although nails are a skin appendage, they have their own signs and symptoms which may relate to other medical conditions. Nail conditions that show signs of infection or inflammation require medical assistance.

Neurodermatitis (Lichen simplex chronicus)

Lichen simplex chronicus (also known as Neurodermatitis) is a skin disorder characterized by chronic itching and scratching. The constant scratching causes thick, leathery, brownish skin. This is a skin disorder characterized by a self-perpetuating scratch-itch cycle:

Nummular dermatitis

Nummular dermatitis (also known as Discoid eczema, Microbial eczema, Nummular eczema, and Nummular neurodermatitis) is one of the many forms of dermatitis. Also known as discoid dermatitis, it is characterized by round or oval-shaped itchy lesions. (The name comes from the Latin word "nummus," which means "coin.")

Pityrtiasis rosea

Unlike Tinea Versicolor, which occurs mainly in summer and subsiding in winter, Pityriasis Rosea occurs principally in the Winter. It affects children and young adults and usually involves the trunk, the armpit flexures and the flexures of the thigh and abdomen. The condition initially develops as a single lesion (raised flat patch) on the trunk. One or two weeks later a second crop of smaller, multiple lesions will appear on the trunk and sometimes the limbs.

Burns

A burn is a type of injury to flesh or skin caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation. Burns that affect only the superficial skin are known as superficial or first-degree burns. When damage penetrates into some of the underlying layers, it is a partial-thickness or second-degree burn. In a full-thickness or third-degree burn, the injury extends to all layers of the skin. A fourth-degree burn additionally involves injury to deeper tissues, such as muscle or bone.

Miliaria

This condition presents as a direct result of profuse sweating from exposure to hot and humid weather conditions, especially in the tropics. Blockage of the sweat glands causes the ducts to rupture and a superficial inflammatory reaction around the sweat glands occurs. It is more likely to occur during scorching hot or extremely humid, summer conditions.

Prurigo (Prurigo nodularis)

Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a skin disease characterized by pruritic (itchy) nodules which usually appear on the arms or legs. Patients often present with multiple excoriated lesions caused by scratching. PN is also known as Hyde prurigo nodularis, Picker‘s nodules, atypical nodular form of neurodermatitis circumscripta, lichen corneus obtusus.

Rosacea

It is a chronic inflammatory disease of the face in which the skin becomes abnormally flushed. At times it can become pustular and weepy. The condition may affect both sexes in all age groups but it is more common in women in their middle or late middle ages. The cause is unknown. Rosacea usually affects the hair follicles and their associated sebaceous glands involving most commonly the nose, cheeks, forehead and chin. Sometimes the neck and upper chest may be affected. It is accompanied by an increased reactivity of the capillaries causing temporary flushing (in the initial stages) and “permanent” erythema (redness) in later stages. Interspersed inflamed pinhead papules and pustules may also appear.

Seborrheic dermatitis

Seborrhoeic dermatitis (also seborrheic dermatitis AmE, seborrhea) (also known as "seborrheic eczema") is an inflammatory skin disorder affecting the scalp, face, and torso. Typically, seborrheic dermatitis presents with scaly, flaky, itchy, and red skin. It particularly affects the sebaceous-gland-rich areas of skin. In adolescents and adults, seborrhoeic dermatitis usually presents as scalp scaling similar to dandruff or as mild to marked erythema of the nasolabial fold.

Seborrheic keratosis

A seborrheic keratosis (also known as "seborrheic verruca," and "senile wart") is a noncancerous benign skin growth that originates in keratinocytes. Like liver spots, seborrheic keratoses are seen more often as people age. In fact, they are sometimes humorously referred to as the "barnacles of old age". The lesions appear in various colors, from light tan to black. They are round or oval, feel flat or slightly elevated (like the scab from a healing wound), and range in size from very small to more than 2.5 centimetres (1.0 in) across. They can resemble warts, though they have no viral origins. They can also resemble melanoma skin cancer, though they are unrelated to melanoma. Because only the top layers of the epidermis are involved, seborrheic keratoses are often described as having a "pasted on" appearance. Some dermatologists refer to seborrheic keratoses as "seborrheic warts"; these lesions, however, are usually not associated with HPV, and therefore such nomenclature is discouraged.

Itching

Itching is a tingling or irritation of the skin that makes you want to scratch the affected area. It may occur all over the whole body (generalized) or only in one location (localized).

Vitiligo

A skin condition of unknown causes resulting in the progressive loss of pigmentation (melanocytes) from the skin. Onset may be at any age but is more common in adolescence and young adulthood. A genetic predisposition to the condition is likely. Approximately 30 % of patients have a family history with a parent, sibling or child having the condition. An auto-immune link also plays a role in Vitiligo development and an association has been observed with auto-immune disorders including diabetes mellitus and thyroid conditions.

Xerosis

Xerosis cutis is the medical term for abnormally dry skin. This name comes from the Greek word “xero,” which means dry. Dry skin is linked to a decrease in the oils on the surface of the skin. It is usually triggered by environmental factors.